Optimizing Multi-Agency Cooperation in Kenya’s National Security Planning and Response



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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,


Shifting geo-political, environmental, and socio-economic factors on the global front continue to herald new realities to the national safety and security of individual countries. To address security challenges and the emergent threats, nations have had to adopt contemporary perspectives. One of the most common, and fruitful of these perspectives in the Kenyan national security setup is that of multi-agency cooperation (MAC). This qualitative inquiry therefore sought to establish the nature and structure of interagency collaboration, collecting data from 111 participants sourced through the snowball sampling method. The data was collected using interviews and thematically analyzed based on emergent themes. The study established that MAC in Kenya is structured at the cabinet level, but also often takes the peer-to-peer collaboration format, and the in-group structure of collaboration. The study proposes Blending Outsider Insights and Techniques (the BOIT Model) to enhance the operational effectiveness and outcomes of MAC frameworks within Kenya’s vast and dynamic security landscape. The model would be useful in improving perspectives and enhancing Tactical Resourcefulness under Stress (TARUS) within agencies and services involved in managing Kenya’s national security and safety.